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A tablet computer with the words tinnitus on the screen.

Tinnitus can be frustrating for a handful of reasons. First, it’s entirely subjective, so unlike many other conditions, you can’t show anyone firsthand what the ringing sounds like. You can’t demonstrate how loud it is, or how bothersome it is. Accurately showing somebody else can be quite perplexing.

Second, there’s not any one, objective way to measure tinnitus. For example, you can’t go into the doctor’s office, get some blood drawn, get some tests ran, and get diagnosed with the condition. It isn’t quite as cut and dry as that.

Third, we still don’t understand exactly how tinnitus works, so our understanding of the causes and treatment options remain less than perfect.

This is all frustrating, of course, but the situation is not hopeless. Despite the frustrations, many people end up showing significant improvements in their condition when paired with the right treatment plan.

In this article, we’ll be discussing one treatment option in particular that has proven to be particularly effective, known as Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT). To gain a better understanding of how it works, you first have to understand the two parts of tinnitus. Lets outline them below

The Two Parts of Tinnitus  

Tinnitus is the perception of sound when no external sound source is present. We can break tinnitus down into two parts:

  1. The actual sound – usually perceived as a ringing sound, but can also be perceived as a buzzing, hissing, whistling, swooshing, or clicking sound.
  2. The emotional reaction – the perception of the loudness and character of the sound and its disruption to everyday life.

The effective treatment of tinnitus requires addressing both parts, which is the underlying rationale of Tinnitus Retraining Therapy.

Tinnitus Retraining Therapy

Let’s break TRT down into two parts again, the first part addressing the actual sound tinnitus produces and the other part dealing with the emotional and behavioral repercussions.

Sound Therapy

Sound therapy is the use of external sound to “cover up” the internal sound of tinnitus. This mitigates tinnitus on a number of levels and can lead to a near-immediate sense of improvement for the patient.

First, the external sound can partially or completely cover the tinnitus sounds, and can also divert the patient’s attention, while the sound is being played. This can provide immediate relief.

Second, sound therapy can result in what is called “habituation,” where the brain is trained over time to reclassify the tinnitus as an unimportant sound that should be ignored.

Third, the use of specialized sound minimizes the hyperactivity in the brain thought to be the underlying mechanism of tinnitus. This is called “neuromodulation.”

Sound therapy therefore has both short-term and long-term benefits. Sound therapy can be delivered through special sound masking devices, headphones, and even hearing aids.

While any sound can theoretically provide the masking effect, specialized medical-grade devices deliver customized sounds or music programmed to match the characteristics of the patient’s tinnitus. Your hearing care professional can help you select the right device and sound.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

In addition to sound therapy, TRT also employs behavioral therapies that address the second, emotional component of tinnitus. In ways, this is the more critical component, as tinnitus can trigger strong emotional reactions like anxiety, depression, and anger.

You can learn various techniques to reduce the anxiety caused by tinnitus (which itself can make the tinnitus worse). This is why behavioral therapy has been so effective—in fact, a 2010 meta-analysis of eight research studies showed significant improvement in depression and quality of life for patients that participated in the programs.

Behavioral therapy can be delivered one-on-one or in groups, from a clinic or over the phone or internet from the patient’s home. Therapy includes education, identifying tinnitus triggers, instituting healthy lifestyle choices to mitigate symptoms, and mindfulness-based stress reduction.

Take Action and Silence Your Tinnitus

TRT is effective because it leads to habituation on both fronts. The actual “tinnitus” sound, and also the emotional and behavioral responses an individual may have.

While there is no known cure to rid tinnitus forever, you can mitigate the symptoms with the right plan and some perseverance. As your tinnitus is masked with sound therapy and the brain is trained over time to ignore it, you’ll be able to cope with the sounds and vastly improve your quality of life.  


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